05 25 2016
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  • On Tuesday, a judge ordered the 78-year-old Cosby to stand trial on sexual assault charges 
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  • The judge concluded Officer Edward Nero played little role in the arrest and wasn't responsible for the failure by police to buckle Gray in  
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  • Bill Cosby faces a preliminary hearing Tuesday to determine if his criminal sex-assault case in suburban Philadelphia goes to trial.Prosecutors had declined to charge the comedian-actor over the 2005 complaint, but arrested him in December after his explosive deposition in the woman's lawsuit became public. In the testimony given in that deposition, Cosby is grilled about giving drugs and alcohol to women before sex; making secret payments to ex-lovers; and hosting Andrea Constand at his home. They knew each other through Temple University, where he was a trustee and she managed the women's basketball team. Bill Cosby's wife refused to answer dozens of questions during a combative deposition in a defamation lawsuit filed by seven women who say the comedian branded them liars after they accused him of sexually assaulting them, according to a transcript released Friday. Camille Cosby was subjected to intense questioning by the women's lawyer, who repeatedly pressed her to say whether she believes her husband "acted with a lack of integrity" during their 52-year marriage. The lawyer also asked if her husband used his position and power "to manipulate young women." Camille Cosby didn't answer those questions and many others after her lawyer cited marital privilege, the legal protection given to communications between spouses. She repeatedly said she had "no opinion" when pressed on whether she viewed her husband's behavior as dishonest and a violation of their marriage vows. About 50 women have publicly accused Bill Cosby of forcing unwanted sexual contact on them decades ago. Cosby has denied the allegations. He faces a criminal case in Pennsylvania, where prosecutors have charged him with sexually violating a former Temple University employee, Andrea Constand. He has pleaded not guilty. Camille Cosby answered questions in the deposition Feb. 22 and again April 19 after her lawyers argued unsuccessfully to stop it. A judge ruled she would have to give a deposition but said she could refuse to answer questions about private communications between her and her husband. Camille Cosby's lawyer, Monique Pressley, repeatedly cited that privilege and advised her not to answer many questions asked by the women's lawyer, Joseph Cammarata. The exchanges between Cammarata and Cosby became testy at times, and she admonished him: "Don't lecture me. Just keep going with the questions." Using a transcript of a deposition Bill Cosby gave in a civil lawsuit filed by Constand in 2005 and a transcript of an interview she gave to Oprah Winfrey in 2000, Cammarata asked Camille Cosby about extramarital affairs her husband had. "Were you aware of your husband setting up trusts for the benefit of women that he had a sexual relationship with?" Cammarata asked. She didn't answer after her lawyer cited marital privilege. Cammarata asked her about Shawn Thompson, a woman who said Bill Cosby fathered her daughter, Autumn Jackson, in the 1970s. Jackson was convicted in 1997 of attempting to extort money from Bill Cosby to prevent her from telling a tabloid she's his daughter. He acknowledged he had an affair with her mother and had given her money. "Was it a big deal when this came up in the 1970s that your husband had — big deal to you that your husband had an extramarital affair and potentially had a daughter from that extramarital affair?" Cammarata asked. "It was a big deal then, yes," Camille Cosby replied. She said she had "no opinion" on whether her husband's admission he obtained quaaludes to give to women with whom he wanted to have sex violated their marriage vows. Her lawyer objected and instructed her not to answer when Cammarata asked her if she ever suspected she had been given any type of drug to alter her state of consciousness when she had sex with her husband. A spokesman for the Cosbys declined to comment on her deposition. The Cosbys have a home in Shelburne Falls, an hour's drive from Springfield, where the lawsuit, seeking unspecified damages, was filed. An attorney handling a separate lawsuit against Bill Cosby revealed Friday that Playboy magazine founder Hugh Hefner provided sworn testimony Wednesday. In the sexual battery lawsuit filed in Los Angeles, Judy Huth says Cosby forced her to perform a sex act on him at the Playboy Mansion around 1974, when she was 15. Bill Cosby's former lawyers have accused Huth of attempting to extort him before filing the case and have tried unsuccessfully to have it dismissed. Huth's attorney, Gloria Allred, said Hefner's testimony will remain under seal for now. Hefner also was named as a defendant in a case filed Monday by former model Chloe Goins, who accuses Bill Cosby of drugging and sexually abusing her at the Playboy Mansion in 2008.   The Associated Press generally doesn't identify people who say they're victims of sexual abuse, but the women accusing Cosby have come forward to tell their stories.___AP Entertainment Writer Anthony McCartney contributed to this report from Los Angeles.
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WASHINGTON (AP) -- Suspended animation may not be just for sci-fi movies anymore: Trauma surgeons soon will try plunging some critically injured people into a deep chill - cooling their body temperatures as low as 50 degrees - in hopes of saving their lives.

Many trauma patients have injuries that should be fixable but they bleed to death before doctors can patch them up. The new theory: Putting them into extreme hypothermia just might allow them to survive without brain damage for about an hour so surgeons can do their work.

In a high-stakes experiment funded by the Defense Department, the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center is preparing to test that strategy on a handful of trauma victims who are bleeding so badly from gunshots, stab wounds or similar injuries that their hearts stop beating. Today when that happens, a mere 7 percent of patients survive.

Get cold enough and "you do OK with no blood for a while," says lead researcher Dr. Samuel Tisherman, a University of Pittsburgh critical care specialist. "We think we can buy time. We think it's better than anything else we have at the moment, and could have a significant impact in saving a bunch of patients."

Tisherman calls the rescue attempt "emergency preservation and resuscitation," EPR instead of CPR. His team plans to begin testing it early next year in Pittsburgh and then expanding the study to the University of Maryland in Baltimore.

If the dramatic approach works, it will spur some rethinking about that line between life and death, says Dr. Arthur Caplan, a University of Pennsylvania bioethicist who is watching the research.

But before the first candidates get chilled, the scientists face a hurdle: The law requires that patients consent to be part of medical experiments after they're told the pros and cons. That's impossible when the person is bleeding to death. There won't even be time to seek a relative's permission.

So starting Tuesday, the Pittsburgh team is beginning a campaign required by the Food and Drug Administration to educate area residents about the study instead - with signs on city buses, video on YouTube, a web site and two town-hall meetings next month. Residents worried about possible risks, such as brain damage, could sign a list saying they'd opt out if they ever were severely injured.

Go even a few minutes without oxygen and the brain in particular can suffer significant damage. Doctors have long sought to use hypothermia in medicine since discovering that cooling can slow the metabolism of the brain and other organs, meaning they can go without oxygen for longer periods. Donated organs are chilled to preserve them, for example. And people whose hearts are shocked back into beating after what's called cardiac arrest often are iced down to about 90 or 91 degrees, mild hypothermia that allows the brain to recover from damage that began in those moments between their collapse and revival.

But the CPR that buys time during more routine cardiac arrest doesn't help trauma patients who've already lost massive amounts of blood. Injuries are the nation's fifth-leading killer, and hemorrhage is one of the main reasons, says Dr. Hasan Alam of Massachusetts General Hospital, who is collaborating with the Pitt study.

Enter deep hypothermia, dropping body temperature to around 50 degrees. It has worked in dogs and pigs, animals considered a model for human trauma, in experiments over the past decade conducted by Tisherman, Alam and a few other research groups.

The animals were sedated and bled until their hearts stopped. Ice-cold fluids were flushed through the body's largest artery, deep-chilling first the brain and heart and then the rest of the body. After more than two hours in this limbo, they were sewn up, gradually warmed and put on a heart-lung machine to restart blood flow. Most survived what should have been a lethal injury and most appeared to be cognitively fine, Tisherman and Alam say.

Hypothermia is counterintuitive for trauma because the cold inhibits blood clotting, something to watch while rewarming people in the planned study. Still, humans can get that cold and fare well, says Tisherman, who is co-author of a pending patent for emergency-preservation methods. He points to rare cases of people who fall through ice and instead of drowning are rewarmed and wake up, as well as deep-chilling that happens during certain heart operations that require completely stopping blood flow for a short time.

"Nothing is magical. Everything has got its limitations," cautions Alam. He says the big question is whether deep hypothermia can help in the chaos of real-life trauma when "the blood has already been lost and you're trying to do catch-up."

Bioethicist Caplan says one concern is that some people might survive but with enough brain damage that they'd have preferred death. He says the "informed community" procedure designed for studies of emergency treatments cannot adequately cover that scenario.

"Most people are going to say, `Yes I would like you to try and save my dad,'" says Caplan, who calls emergency preservation promising. But, he says, "we continue to ignore the 900-pound gorilla of who's going to manage the bad outcome."

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EDITOR'S NOTE - Lauran Neergaard covers health and medical issues for The Associated Press.

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